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Western Movement:

US History Puzzle

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Western Movement:


1. The -?- Trail was a cattle trail from San Antonio, Texas to Abilene, Kansas.
5. Shawnee chief who tried unsuccessfully to organize Indians to resist settlers; wanted to create a separate Indian nation in the Ohio River Valley but was defeated at the Tippecanoe River in 1811; fought & died with the British in War of 1812.
8. The kind of range which is unfenced land belonging to the government; often used for cattle grazing.
13. Daniel -?-: Hunter & scout who blazed & cut a 300 mile trail through the Appalachian Mts. by way of the Cumberland Gap and led pioneers over this trail to new settlements in Kentucky.
16. Old Northwest: Region north of the -?- River from which the following states were made: OH (1803), IN (1816), IL (1818), MI (1837), and WI (1848).
17. Tatanka Yotanka or "-?- Bull" was a Sioux chief who was considered "above all the others" (other chiefs); declared war on the U.S.; in 1876 he formed an alliance between the Arapaho, the Cheyenne, & the Sioux.
19. The term "Trail of -?-" refers to the tragic removal and journey of Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma Indian Territory.
20. Tashunka Witko or "-?- Horse" was a Sioux chief & superior field commander who declared war on the United States.
21. John C. -?-: American army officer in California who established & led the Bear Flag Republic, a briefly independent territory in northern California in the mid-1800's.
22. Addition or acquiring of new territory.
23. Andrew -?-: Led Tennessee frontiersmen to victory over Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend.
26. Between 1846 and 1848 the U.S. was at war with Mexico; the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe -?- ended the Mexican War; Mexico acknowledged American title to Texas, New Mexico, & California - cost: $15 million plus $3.4 million of Mexican debts.
27. The 1890 Battle of Wounded -?- began as U.S. soldiers attempted to disarm about 350 Sioux who seemed a threat; after a scuffle, shots being fired by the soldiers, & the smoke cleared, about 200 of the Sioux were dead - they were generally unarmed.
28. Thinly settled area of forests and small farm clearings which lay just outside each community.
30. John -?-: A California landowner on whose land (-?-'s Mill) gold was discovered in 1848; led to a westward movement of miners in search of gold (gold rush).
32. The Land -?- of 1785: This law provided for the survey, dividing, sale, & settlement of the lands of the Old Northwest; was passed by the government under the Articles of Confederation.
33. Winfield -?-: Led an army from New Orleans to Mexico City; its capture ended the war with Mexico.
37. The -?- Trail started on the Missouri River at Omaha or Independence and ended at Fort Vancouver.
39. The -?- Road was the first road in the U.S.; was built by the U.S. government; it ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling on the Ohio River; later it reached Vandalia, Illinois and became the main overland route to the West.
41. The -?- Act: An 1830 federal law allowing the government to seize Indian land as long as compensation was paid.
42. The -?- Mail Trail started in St. Joseph, Missouri and ended in San Francisco, California.
43. Hills with flat tops, usually with steep sides.
44. The -?- Express was established to carry important mail from the East to California; its route started at St. Joseph, Missouri, and ended at Sacramento; used a system of relays of men & swift horses and provided a relatively fast means of communication.
46. Gen. Zachary -?-: Was sent by President Polk to protect Texas from possible Mexican invasion; he & his troops were guarding the border at the Rio Grande when the war with Mexico began; led successful invasion of Mexico during the war.
49. Term which refers to those settlers who jumped the gun as they entered Oklahoma to claim land.
50. A dangerous outlaw, usually associated with the West, Southwest, & Mexico.
52. Anthony -?-: Revolutionary War hero & general in charge of the troops Washington sent to subdue the Indians in the Northwest; put an end to the Indian fighting in Ohio and the Indian claim to the rest of the Northwest Territory.
53. Oregon Country: The -?- Northwest from California to Alaska including the present-day states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and parts of Wyoming, Montana, & British Columbia.
55. The California Trail started on the Oregon Trail south of the -?- River in Oregon Territory and ended in San Francisco.
60. Meriwether -?-: Explorer, who along with William Clark, explored & mapped the Louisiana Territory; journeyed some 8000 miles (round trip) by way of the Missouri River, Rocky Mts., & Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
61. In 1819 the United States obtained Florida from -?-; reduced the danger of Indian attacks on frontier settlements north of Florida & gave the U.S. control of important rivers in the region.
63. James K. -?-: Became the 11th U.S. President in 1845; was a strong believer in expansion; the territory of the U.S. was vastly increased during his administration; resolved Texas statehood & annexed Oregon, New Mexico, & California.
64. Jim -?-: Trapper who discovered Great Salt Lake in 1824.
65. Purchase (1853) from Mexico (arranged by an American, James -?-) of a strip of land in the southern part of what are now New Mexico & Arizona; important because the land was going to be used as part of a southern railroad route.
66. Refers to the New England states and the Middle Atlantic states of New York, Pennsylvania, & New Jersey.
67. A part of a township (a land division six miles square); there are 36 of these each 640 acres or one mile square in a township.
68. Privately built road with toll gates; pikes were used to bar the way until users paid fees, then the pikes were turned aside.


2. The term -?- Destiny refers to the belief that the U.S. was destined to expand westward across the entire continent (from coast to coast) and even beyond.
3. The -?- Overland Mail Trail started in St. Louis, Missouri and ended at San Francisco.
4. Apache chief who led his tribe against the U.S. for ten years.
6. The -?- Cession: A large area of land ceded by Mexico to the U.S. in an 1848 peace treaty; contained the present states of CA, NV, & UT, most of AZ, and parts of NM, WY, & CO.
7. Outnumbered by more than -?- to 1, the defenders of the Alamo who died included its commander William Travis as well as Davy Crockett, & Jim Bowie.
9. John J. -?-: New York merchant, leader in the American fur trade, & founder of Astoria, a fur trading post near the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon; during the War of 1812, the British took his trading post in Oregon.
10. Stephen -?-: Called the "Father of Texas", he helped bring a large number of American families to Texas in the 1820's by offering them land at low prices.
11. William F. -?- ("Buffalo Bill"): Earned his nickname by killing buffalo to provide food for railroad workers in the West; also toured with his "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show".
12. The "Lone -?- Republic" is the name given to Texas when it won its independence from Mexico; name was used from 1836 - 1845 (Texas entered the Union in 1845).
14. Americans who wanted to expand the territory of the U.S.; there were those who believed the U.S. should include all territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
15. The -?- Trail started in Independence, Missouri and ended at Santa Fe, New Mexico. (2 words)
17. The Old -?- Trail was an extension of the Santa Fe Trail; it started in Santa Fe and ended at Los Angeles.
18. Robert -?-: Famous as a sea captain in the China trade and the first American to sail around the world.
21. The name given to those (prospectors) who flocked to California when gold was discovered there in 1849. (hyphenated word)
23. Nez Perce chief who tried to lead his tribe to Canada rather than live on an Oklahoma reservation; Ended his surrender speech with, "...I will fight no more, forever".
24. William -?-: Explorer, who along with Meriwether Lewis, explored & mapped the Louisiana Territory; journeyed some 8000 miles (round trip) by way of the Missouri River, Rocky Mts., & Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
25. The -?- Ordinance of 1787: Organized & provided a government for the Northwest Territory and provided a process for establishing new states; a law passed by the government under the Articles of Confederation.
26. Sam -?-: Leader of Texas forces which defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto & captured Gen. Santa Anna winning independence for Texas; served as the first President of the Republic of Texas (served twice).
29. A tax or fee paid at regular intervals by users, e.g., by those using a road (turnpike), canal, or the like.
31. Marcus -?-: American doctor & missionary to the Indians in Oregon; letters from Marcus and his family to friends in the East & Midwest increased interest in settling this territory; was killed while attempting to run his mission.
34. A kind of sturdy, broad-wheeled covered wagon which pioneers used to cross the prairie.
35. The -?- Act (1862) gave 160 acres of public land free to any citizen who would settle & cultivate it for five years.
36. An old Spanish mission in San Antonio defended by 187 Texans against attack by a Mexican army led by Santa Anna; the Texans all died fighting rather than surrender; became a symbol of resistance as "Remember the -?-" was used as a battle cry.
38. Louisiana Purchase: -?- territory in North America purchased by the U.S. in 1803. President Jefferson sent Lewis & Clark to explore this region in 1804.
39. A -?- ship is a large, swift, sailing ship built for speed rather than for maximum carrying capacity; largely used between 1840 and 1880.
40. Fur traders in the Rocky Mts. were known as "-?- Men".
45. Long stretch of flat land covered by tall, thick grass.
47. Places where fur company men and fur trappers met.
48. Device used on canals for raising or lowering the water level by using gates; used when two or more water levels differ.
50. The 1887 -?- Act: U.S. citizenship and 160 acres of land was given to the head of an Indian family if they would drop tribal allegiance.
51. Between 1835 and 1837 Osceola, chief of the -?- Indians in Florida, led a war against relocation; the -?- War continued until 1842 when these Indians were virtually exterminated.
53. Zebulon -?-: Explored the upper Mississippi River Valley in 1805, the Louisiana Territory south of the regions explored by Lewis & Clark, and the Rocky Mts. in 1806; a peak he discovered in Colorado is named for him.
54. George A. -?-: U.S. military commander killed with all (more than 200) of his cavalrymen by the Sioux at the Battle of the Little Big Horn (river in Montana) in 1876.
55. Shoshone woman who led Lewis & Clark across the Rocky Mountains.
56. Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa -?-: Mexican president & dictator defeated in Texas' War for Independence at San Jacinto; his cruelty to captured Americans made him hated by all Texans.
57. The -?- Canal was the most important of the early canals in the U.S.; it linked the Hudson River & Lake Erie which made an all-water route possible from the harbor of New York City to the Great Lakes; was completed in 1825.
58. The Old -?- was the region south of the Ohio River from which the following states were made: KY (1792), TN (1796), MS (1817), and AL (1819).
59. A member of a committee or group of citizens organized to keep law and order in mining towns & in areas where no police existed.
62. Stephen W. -?- (the "Long Marcher"): American colonel who led his army westward and captured Santa Fe; later he helped the Americans in California to overthrow the Mexican government of that region; a western fort was named for him.
64. To mark a trail by cutting off pieces of bark on the trees.

Puzzle Solution

Last modified: January 2, 2013