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European Middle Ages:

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European Middle Ages:


3. The Pope who in 1095 issued a call for a crusade to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims.
7. Medieval warfare changed with the use of the -?-; it allowed archers to shoot arrows faster & farther than the traditional crossbow did.
8. Lord who swore an oath of allegiance to another lord (overlord); were given protection & land in return for performing military & court services and for making financial contributions to their overlords.
10. The oldest major literary work written in a vernacular language was the epic tale "-?-".
11. Roger -?-: English churchman who predicted the importance of science in the world of the future.
15. Geoffrey -?-: Wrote "The Canterbury Tales", a vivid picture of life in medieval England; he graphically described what he saw around him rather than a world of fantasy.
17. Charles -?-: The Frankish leader who defeated the Muslim invaders at Tours.
20. A Church court set up in the 13th century to try heretics.
21. Land granted by a lord to his vassal in return for certain services.
25. When a young noble proved that he was an able and courageous warrior, he was made a -?-.
26. In medieval times, a poem that tells a story about the heroic deeds of knights & warriors is called an -?-.
28. Canon and Common are examples of Church and secular -?-.
29. A large, self-sufficient estate held by a nobleman or lord and worked by serfs.
30. Peter -?-: A famous and popular medieval scholar and teacher who taught that Church beliefs could be understood and explained by reason.
32. When the Roman legions abandoned Britain, the island was invaded by -?- tribes (Jutes, Angles, & Saxons).
35. Holding beliefs which the Church considers wrong; was punishable by excommunication and occasionally by death without hope of salvation.
37. Head of the Roman Catholic Church; in medieval times they exercised great power and felt themselves responsible for all the souls in Christendom.
39. Expelling a person from the Church, thus denying them the Sacraments; also, involved social ostracism.
42. Association of people who worked at the same occupation, e.g., craft (artisans) and merchant.
43. Local people who answered questions about a case, e.g., grand and petit.
45. Feudal -?-: Nobleman who promised protection & land to vassals in return for certain services and contributions rendered.
46. Rank above page on way to knighthood; were often with knights when jousting at tournaments.
51. Wandering folk-singers of the Middle Ages; they composed romantic love poems and popular music.
53. A youth who, after completion of his apprenticeship, worked for a master and received a wage.
55. Empire which was a loose, politically weak association of states (962 - 1806). (two words)
56. Books were very expensive because they were copied by hand on pages made of sheepskin or -?-.
58. Monks made an important contribution to civilization by copying -?- and Roman manuscripts (by hand) and keeping learning alive.
59. The -?- States were Central Italian states which were ruled by the Pope; given to the Church by Pepin the Short.
62. Markets held where main trade routes met or in major towns for the purpose of buying and selling wares from many countries; also provided varied entertainment.
63. Pope Gregory I established the idea of this "Spiritual" kingdom.
66. Great medieval poet; wrote in Italian rather than Latin; author of the "Divine Comedy".
67. Task to determine guilt or innocence; trial by -?-.
68. During the 3rd Crusade, -?- Barbarossa represented the Holy Roman Empire.
69. Wars launched by Christian Europe to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims; lasting nearly 200 years, they contributed to the awakening of Western Europe.
70. The -?- system was an attempt to distribute the land fairly among serfs by dividing good & poor land and allocating each serf portions which varied in fertility.


1. A man who believes that he can best serve Christ by withdrawing from the world; were regarded as the finest example of a Christian life, e.g., St. Benedict.
2. A combat with lances between two mounted knights.
4. St. -?-: Italian monk who founded the Benedictine Order at Monte Cassino, Italy, in 529, and drew up the first rule for monastic living (which is still in use today).
5. Charlemagne made this his capital city.
6. A style of church architecture which evolved in Western Europe in the 12th century; characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, large stained-glass windows, & comparatively thin walls.
9. Muslim leader with whom England's Richard I reached agreement in 1192.
12. The Middle Ages (or -?- period): Began with the passing of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D. and lasted until c.1270; Also known as the Age of Faith because of the importance of religion.
13. Used to support the outward pressure from heavy stone roofs on Gothic buildings: -?- buttresses.
14. The Early Middle Ages or -?- Ages (500 - 1050): A period of violence, confusion, and disorder.
16. Code of behavior for nobles and knights which evolved in medieval (feudal) times.
18. Richard I of England was known as "Richard the -?-".
19. Frankish ruler who built a large empire in Western & Central Europe, providing order, spreading Christianity, and advancing education and culture.
22. Medieval architecture which used one or several rounded arches forming a vault; usually had massive walls & small windows making the interiors dark & somber.
23. Community of monks who have taken a variety of vows.
24. Bourgeoisie: -?- dwellers; a class (middle class) which evolved with the growth of towns.
27. Roman -?- Church: Western branch of the Christian Church; is often called "The Church" in medieval times.
31. Reciprocal agreement by which kings gave land to vassals for armed troops in time of war.
33. Pope, cardinal, bishop, priest, monk, friar, abbot, nun, legate, curia were all Roman Catholic Church -?-.
34. Reunited the Frankish lands which had been divided since the death of Clovis; ruled from 687 - 714.
36. Holy men who felt that they should work in the world to improve conditions while setting a good example of Christian living, e.g., Francis of Assisi.
38. Small, independent political unit ruled by a duke.
40. Frankish king who converted to Roman Catholicism.
41. The -?- Class: A class which evolved with the growth of towns; it consisted of merchants, craftsmen, and professional people.
43. A holy city to Christians, Jews, and Muslims; the goal of the First Crusade.
44. The Dark Ages was a period when -?- law and culture disintegrated, central government collapsed, and feudalism evolved.
47. High-ranking clergyman in the Roman Catholic Church; collectively they have the responsibility of electing the Pope.
48. Clergyman who supervised the religious activities of priests in a given district; he was generally a man of noble birth.
49. Contest involving knights who met in combat to prove their skill.
50. Former Roman province of Palestine; when it came under the control of the Turks in the Middle Ages, the Crusades were initiated in an attempt to regain it for Christendom. (two words)
52. Clergyman who cared for the religious needs of the people in a manorial village.
54. A young man who lived and worked, generally without pay, in the home of a master craftsman to learn his trade.
57. Document granted by a ruler to townsmen giving them certain rights & privileges, including that of governing themselves & enacting their own laws.
60. Thomas -?-: Medieval scholar; urged use of reason to explain the Church; wrote "Summa Theologiae".
61. During the 3rd Crusade, -?- Augustus represented France.
62. The medieval name for the French.
64. One of many peasants who lived on manors and were bound to the land.
65. During the -?- Crusade, Richard I represented England.

Puzzle Solution

Last modified: January 2, 2013